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Guide to Python

Python is a widely-used general-purpose programming language that can be used to build a variety of software applications.
15 juin 2022 • 11 minute de lecture
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What is Python?

Created by Guido van Rossum and first released in 1991, Python is a widely-used general-purpose programming language that can be used to build a variety of software applications and perform everyday computing tasks. Python is similar in style to the English language, making it easy for both programmers and beginners to read and understand. Python is also easy to learn and has several built-in libraries to support tasks such as string handling, file handling, and data analytics.
Another usability feature that differentiates Python from other languages is that Python programs are executed directly from the Python interpreter without creating an executable program. This makes it an excellent tool for developing and testing prototypes quickly. Python is cross-platform and can run on Windows, macOS, Linux, Unix, Raspberry Pi, and mobile devices. In addition to a standard language, there are a variety of Python modules available for download from the Python Package Index to assist with tasks such as web development and data analytics.
Python software foundation is the organization that maintains Python, and they release new versions of the language periodically. As of writing this article, the latest version of Python is 3.10, which was released in March 2022.
As one of the world's most popular programming languages due to its ease of use and versatility, Python continues to grow in popularity year after year.
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What is Python used for?

Common uses of Python include web development, building software applications, automating data collection processes, problem-solving, and building machine learning algorithms, which are designed to automatically process data and glean useful information from it. There are many other applications for Python, such as system scripting, software testing, creating graphical user interfaces, and more. However, to give you a sense of some of the most popular Python applications, here are a few examples:
Automating tasks: You can use Python scripts to automate repetitive or tedious tasks like renaming files or backing up data. Python scripts can also be used to extend the functionality of other software applications. For example, you can use a Python script to process images or videos or to generate reports automatically. This can save you a lot of time in the long run! 
Data analysis: Python is great for working with large amounts of data due to its efficient algorithms and built-in libraries like NumPy (which lets you perform mathematical operations on arrays). Pandas is another useful library that allows you to manipulate tabular data easily. 
Machine learning: If you're interested in artificial intelligence or predictive modeling, then using python will give you a head start as it has many great libraries like scikit-learn that make implementing machine learning algorithms easier.
Web development: Popular frameworks like Django and Flask allow you to build sophisticated web applications quickly. These frameworks provide libraries and tools that make common web development tasks easier.
App Development: You can use Python to create apps for Android and iOS devices using popular Python libraries like Kivy. These libraries allow you to access the device's sensors (like the camera) and create sophisticated user interfaces and also help with cross-platform compatibility.
Game development: You can use Python to create simple 2D games or even 3D games if you're willing to put in the extra effort. PyGame is a popular library used for game development.
Desktop applications: Python can be used to create desktop applications using libraries like Tkinter (which provides a graphical user interface (GUI) toolkit) or Qt (which is a cross-platform application framework).
Python

What are the benefits of using Python?

Python is a powerful language that you can use for building all sorts of applications, from simple scripts to complex web apps and everything in between. It’s also relatively straightforward compared to other programming languages, which makes it a good choice if you’re just starting out. Python is also free and open-source, so anyone can contribute to its development or use it for their own projects.
Another big advantage of using Python is that it comes with a large standard library which includes modules for tasks like connecting to databases, parsing XML data, or implementing certain parts of the TCP/IP protocol stack. That means you don't have to write them yourself - saving you time and effort. Finally, because there's such a large community of users worldwide (according to Tiobe Index, it's currently the most popular programming language), there's always someone who can help answer your questions when needed.

Benefits of using Python over C++ or Java or any other language

An interpreted (not compiled), high-level and general-purpose programming, Python's design philosophy emphasizes code readability with its notable use of significant whitespace. Python programmers can write clear, logical code for smaller and larger projects using its language constructs and object-oriented approach.

Advantages of Python:

Readability: Python syntax is very simple compared to other languages like Java or C++.  It uses English keywords instead of punctuation which makes it easier to understand the program flow without any ambiguity. Because of this feature, less number of lines are required as compared to other languages thus making your program more efficient both in terms of time complexity as well as space complexity analysis. Fewer lines also mean fewer bugs during runtime! 
Open Source & Community Development: Python being open source means that anyone can contribute towards development which leads to vast community support available online 24/7 whenever you get stuck while coding (which is bound to happen!). Also because so many people are using it nowadays, it’s only going up from here – meaning better IDEs, libraries, frameworks, etc. Nearly everything you could possibly need is already available!
Libraries & Frameworks: Speaking of libraries, python has some of the most amazing ones out there which makes life much easier while developing anything from a simple “hello world” program to building large-scale projects or applications. Examples include Django (Web Development), TensorFlow (Machine Learning/Deep Learning) and so many more. All these frameworks are very well documented with plenty of resources available online.
Integration Feature: Python can communicate smoothly with almost all major programming languages like C, C++, Java, etc due to its integration feature thus making it easy for Python developers who know more than one language to work on python based projects without any hassle. This is extremely useful in cases where parts of your project are written in different languages and need to be integrated seamlessly.  
Object-Oriented Language: Like C++, but unlike Java, everything in python is an object which provides great structure and modularity for code as well as promotes reusability thus saving a lot of time during the development process. Also, the fact that it is a high-level language means that complex concepts can be implemented without worrying about memory management or other system-level details.

What types of jobs and industries use Python?‎

Python is used in many jobs and industries. Jobs that use Python include web developers, software engineers, data scientists and analysts, machine learning engineers, AI researchers, and more. The language is particularly popular among data scientists due to its ease of use for statistical analysis and data wrangling tasks. Machine learning algorithms are often written in Python because the syntax is relatively simple compared to other languages like Java or C++.
Industries that use Python include technology, finance, e-commerce, scientific research, and academia. They use Python to build websites, perform data analytics and perform web and mobile development. Python is also increasingly used for artificial intelligence, machine learning, and natural language processing, and has also been used to create a wide variety of tools for robotics, autonomous vehicles, and healthcare.

How many companies use Python?

Python is an open-source tool with 8007 companies reportedly using Python in their tech stacks. According to the Stackshare page for Python, currently, there are 43.8K GitHub stars and 22.6K GitHub forks.
Python is used by many large companies to perform analytics, build websites, perform data analytics and perform web and mobile development. Examples of major Python users are Google, Netflix, Uber, Shopify, Reddit, OpenStreetMap, Facebook, Stack Overflow, Wikipedia, and Instagram.

What does a Python developer do?

A Python developer is responsible for writing and testing code that will be used to create applications written in the Python programming language. They may also be required to write documentation or work with other team members on larger projects. Some common tasks a Python developer might do include:
Designing and implementing new features 
Optimizing existing code 
Writing unit tests 
Identifying and fixing bugs 
Working with other team members to create a well-designed and efficient application 
A good Python developer should have strong problem-solving and debugging skills and be able to write clean, well-organized code. They should also be familiar with common Python libraries and tools.
Python development

What are some common Python tools and libraries?

Python provides a large standard library with tools suitable for a wide range of applications. As of September 2021, the Python Package Index (PyPI), which is the official repository for third-party Python software, contains more than 329,000 packages providing functionality for*:
Automation
Computer networking
Data analytics
Databases
Documentation
Graphical user interfaces
Image processing
Machine learning
Mobile apps
Multimedia
Scientific computing
System administration
Test frameworks
Text processing
Web frameworks
Web scraping
(*List Source: Wikipedia)
Common Python tools and libraries include:
virtualenv: used to create isolated Python environments 
Django: a web development framework 
Flask: a microframework for web development 
requests: a library for making HTTP requests 
Beautiful Soup: a library for parsing HTML and XML 
NumPy: a library for scientific computing 
matplotlib: a plotting library 
Pygame: a library for making games 
pyglet: a library for making multimedia applications 
SQLAlchemy: a library for working with SQL databases data types

Is Python easy to learn? How can I learn it?

Yes, Python is very easy to learn. The basic syntax and rules of the language are very simple and easy to understand. Learning resources include books, online courses, and tutorials. You can also join online communities and groups to discuss topics related to Python and get help from other users. That said, it can take some time to master all the features of the language and become an expert Python programmer. So if you wish to learn Python, start with the basics and be patient. After you have a solid understanding of the basics, you can move on to more advanced concepts. Patience and practice are key to learning anything, and Python is no exception.

Would it be better if I hired a freelance Python developer for my project? Why?

As easy as learning how to code in Python is, there's still a lot that goes into becoming a great Python developer. While you can technically get by without ever hiring one, working with a freelance Python developer (or even a team of them) can save you an incredible amount of time and help ensure your project's success. That said, let’s consider some of the reasons to hire a freelance Python developer. Perhaps you need someone with specific expertise to help you with a project, or maybe you just need an extra pair of hands to get something done quickly. Whatever the reason, there are some great benefits to working with freelancers that make them worth considering for your next project.
One of the biggest advantages of hiring a freelance Python developer is their flexibility. Unlike full-time employees who may be limited by their schedule or ability to take on new tasks, freelancers can typically be more flexible in terms of both time and scope. This means that they can often work around your schedule and complete tasks as needed, rather than having to wait for approval from a supervisor first. Additionally, if your project requirements change mid-way through, a freelancer can usually adjust their approach without issue – something that could cause major delays if relying on traditional staff members instead.
Another key benefit is cost savings; because freelancers aren’t bound by the same overhead costs as larger companies (e.g., they don’t have office space rent), they’re able to offer competitive rates. In addition, most experienced professionals understand how important it is to deliver high-quality work on time and within budget – something that can be difficult to guarantee with in-house staff who may be juggling multiple projects at once.
Ultimately, working with a freelance Python developer can provide you with the skilled assistance you need without breaking the bank. When done right, it’s a win-win situation for both parties involved.

How do I hire a freelance Python developer?

The first step is to find a python developer that matches your project's scope and requirements. There are a few avenues you can explore, such as job boards or online freelancer platforms, like Freelancer.com. Once you've found a few candidates that look promising, the next step is to bring them on board and get started. When hiring a Python developer, there are a few steps you should follow:
Define your project's scope and requirements: This will help you identify the right type of freelancer for the job, as well as what skills they need to possess. For example, if you're working on a data-heavy project, be sure to include that in your initial post so developers know whether or not they have the necessary experience.
Write up an engaging job description: In addition to providing details about your project, make sure to mention any deadlines or budget restrictions upfront. This will ensure that only those developers who are able and willing to work within your parameters apply for the position.
Review proposals and portfolios carefully before making a decision: Once you've received applications from interested candidates, take some time to review their previous work (if available) and see how it aligns with what you're looking for in this role. You should also assess their proposal itself – is it clear, concise, and free of errors? These are all important factors that can give insight into whether or not someone is truly qualified for the job at hand.
Communicate often during the development process: After choosing a developer, it's important to stay in close communication throughout the project. Having everyone on the same page will prevent any potential issues down the line. If possible, set up regular check-ins or progress reports so you can track their work and provide feedback as needed.
Request a final delivery of all project files upon completion: Once your freelancer has completed the work, be sure to request a full delivery of all project files before making your final payment. This will allow you to inspect their code thoroughly and confirm that everything meets your expectations.
How It Works

How much does a freelance Python developer cost?

A freelancer’s price may vary depending on the individual's years of experience, skillset, project complexity, and scope. However, a good rule of thumb is to expect to pay around $20-$100 per hour for a freelance Python developer. The reason this range is so wide is that it also depends on factors such as whether you need a full-stack developer or someone who specializes in data analytics. A freelancer’s location is also a significant factor that affects the amount an individual may charge.

Do I own the rights to work completed by a freelance Python developer?

Typically, the Python developer will be working with the idea, data, and assets that clearly belong to you, so it is unlikely that they will claim ownership of your data. Nevertheless, if you want to be safe, you can always upgrade your project with an IP agreement on Freelancer.com, that you and the developer can sign at the beginning of the project. You can also upgrade to a Non-Disclosure Agreement (NDA), which you can ask the freelancer to sign to preserve the project's confidentiality.

Conclusion

Python is a great language to learn if you're looking to pursue a career in tech or data science. Python is used to build websites, perform data analytics and perform web and mobile development. As such, there are many benefits to learning Python, such as saving time and money, enhancing your skills, and working with other developers to accomplish ambitious tasks. Python is great for beginners, and the basics are quite simple to learn. Learning Python is also a great way to become more familiar with various programming concepts and computer technology. Python is often described as the "perfect mix of speed, size, expressiveness, and extensibility." For those reasons, Python is the go-to language for many data scientists and developers and has seen strong growth in popularity. That said, getting advanced in Python takes a lot of effort, and it takes time and practice to become a real expert.
For those reasons, working with a freelance Python developer can be a great option. By getting assistance from a Python developer, you can save time and money, and learn a ton in the process.
So, whether you are an entrepreneur or a student, be sure to take your time in finding the right Python path for you. We hope that our answers to the questions above were helpful and that you can now make better-informed decisions and be more effective with Python.
Good luck with your Python career or project!

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