Monoamines, Peptides, Proteins and Lipid based molecules can act as extracellular messengers to
regulate metabolic activity in vertebrate, invertebrate and plant cells. These messengers, often termed
Hormones, can alter the overall metabolism of the cell and organism or interact with each other by
changing the synthesis and/or degradation of other extra- and intra-cellular messengers.
Your task is to select any two (2) classes of extra-cellular messengers, which may include a peptide and a
protein, a protein and a lipid or a monoamine and a lipid based molecule, that interact with each other,
directly or indirectly, to alter the Metabolism (biochemical pathways within cells) in a vertebrate,
invertebrate or plant.
Excluded from the Report are Insulin (a protein), Glucagon (a peptide), Adrenaline (a monoamine)
and Cortisol (a lipid).
The Report should use the Headings below and address the following:
Identify the names, class and structure of the extra-cellular messenger molecules and contextualize
the intracellular metabolic (biochemical) pathways they affect. Outline the effect(s) the extracellular
messengers have (individually and in combination) on the organism locally (i.e. specific cells or
tissue) and/or as a whole (i.e. the whole organism). Briefly outline the precursors and the
biochemical steps to produce the extracellular messengers (i.e. parent molecule, key enzymes &
cofactors involved in synthesis) and the fate of the extracellular messengers following their action
(i.e. messenger degradation).
2. Biochemical Pathways
Describe the biochemical pathway(s), including key enzymes/cofactors and intermediates, directly
affected by the extracellular messengers selected.
3. Disease States
Identify the disease state(s)/or consequence(s) of the extracellular messengers that arise if there is a
chemical perturbation or genetic defect anywhere in the biosynthetic pathway of the extracellular
messengers or their target cells.
Briefly describe the strategy used to overcome the disease state as a consequence of extracellular
Diagrams maybe used (with appropriate references). The report should be in 12pt font, <2,000
words, with Vancouver referencing format (labelled as superscript numbers throughout the text and
identified in the References, Website(s) should include accession dates).
Note: References and diagram/legends are not included in the word count
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