1. a) A computer network can be designed following a connectionOriented architecture or a connectionless network architecture.
Suppose that in the network layer, routers are subjected to "stressful"
conditions that might cause them to fail fairly often. Explain the
actions that would need to be taken on such router failure at a high
level, and which architecture better suits such a network environment
b) Traditional IP network routing is time consuming. When managing an
IP network, for every packet at each routing node, it incurs four
delays – queuing delay, processing delay, transmission delay and
propagation delay. Of the four delays, explain which two delays are
hard to reduce and provide a mechanism that can possibly reduce
these two delays.
2. End-host A communicates with end-host B in a 100Mbps network. Assume
the shortest path between A and B has three Multi-Protocol Label
Switching (MPLS) routers and the minimum delay to establish a path is
0.15ms. Each packet has 512 bytes payload and 64 bytes header. Assume
there is no propagation delay from A to B. The minimum delay to label
the shortest path from A to B is 0.2ms. The delay to add a 32 bits label to
a packet and check a packet label is 0.01ms. Calculate the minimum delay
for transferring the 512KB file from A to B using the MPLS routers.
3. When designing a computer network in support of one-many
communication scenarios, IP multicasting is normally applied which can
be implemented with unicast emulation or network-layer multicast
scheme. Consider a single sender and 64 receivers. Suppose the sender
is connected to the receivers through a binary tree of routers. Each time a
packet (or copy of a packet) is sent over a single link, it incurs a unit of
a) Calculate the cost of sending a multicast packet in the case of unicast
emulation and network-layer multicast for this topology respectively.
b) Assess the complexities that IP multicast routing add to IP unicast
routing and the role that Reverse Path Forwarding (RPF) plays in IP
4. Suppose that two Ethernet networks are interconnected through ATM
network using interconnecting devices as shown in Figure Q4-1.
The interconnecting device ID uses AAL5 in order to encapsulate
Ethernet frames. The format of Ethernet frame is shown in
Figure Q4-2 and the format of Adaptation Layer 5 packet (PDU,
protocol data unit) is given in Figure Q4-3. Assume that a TCP
application running on the host H1 sends two characters CR (carriage
return) and LF (line feed) to a TCP application running on the host
Calculate the number of ATM cells needed to transfer the TCP
segment carrying these two characters between H1 and H2. Assume
that the TCP header size is 20 bytes and the IP header size is 20
bytes. Determine the length of the padding in the Ethernet frame and
the padding length in the AAL5 PDU.
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What format you require the answer in, in a statement/paragraph explainer form or a diagramic form because the time required for both varies a lot.
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